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Smith's Bible Dictionary Letter G

Smith’s Bible Dictionary

by William Smith, 1884

Gaal
BIBLE STUDY - BIBLE DICTIONARY(contempt), son of Ebed, aided the Shechemites in their rebellion against Abimelech. (Judges
9:1) … (B.C. 1206.)
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Smith’s Bible Dictionary William Smith
Gaash
(earthquake), a hill of Ephraim, where Joshua was buried. The brooks or valley of Gaash, (2
Samuel 23:30; 1 Chronicles 11:32) were probably at the foot of the hill.
Gaba
The same name as Geba, which see.
Gabatha
(Esther 12:1) [Bigthan, Or Bigthana] Gabbai
(tax gatherer), apparently the head of an important family of Benjamin resident at Jerusalem.
(Nehemiah 11:8) (B.C. before 536.)
Gabbatha
(elevated; a platform) the Hebrew or Chaldee appellation of a place, also called “Pavement,”
where the judgment-seat or bema was planted, from his place on which Pilate delivered our Lord
to death. (John 19:13) It was a tessellated platform outside the praetorium, on the western hill of
Jerusalem, for Pilate brought Jesus forth from thence to it.
Gabriel
(man of God), an angel sent by God to announce to Zacharias the birth of John the Baptist, and
to Mary the birth of Christ. He was also sent to Daniel to explain his visions. (Daniel 8:16; 9:21)
Gad
(a troop).
• Jacob’s seventh son, the first-born of Zilpah, Leah’s maid, and whole-brother to Asher. (Genesis
30:11-13; 46:16,18) (B.C. 1753-1740.)
• “The seer,” or “the king’s seer,” i.e. David’s (1 Chronicles 29:29; 2 Chronicles 29:25) was a
“prophet” who appears to have joined David when in the old. (1 Samuel 22:5) (B.C. 1061.) He
reappears in connection with the punishment inflicted for the numbering of the people. (2 Samuel
24:11-19; 1 Chronicles 21:9-19) He wrote a book of the Acts of David, (1 Chronicles 29:29) and
also assisted in the arrangements for the musical service of the “house of God.” (2 Chronicles
29:25)
Gad, The Tribe Of
The country allotted to the tribe of Gad appears, speaking roughly, to have lain chiefly about
the centre of the land east of Jordan. The sought of that district—from the Arnon (Wady Mojeb),
about halfway down the Dead Sea, to Heshbon, nearly due east of Jerusalem—was occupied by
Reuben, and at or about Heshbon the possessions of Gad commenced. They embraced half Gilead,
(3:12) or half the land of the children of Ammon, (Joshua 13:25) probably the mountainous district
which is intersected by the torrent Jabbok, including, as its most northern town, the ancient sanctuary
of Mahanaim. On the east the furthest landmark given is “Aroer that is before Rabbah,” the present
Amman . (Joshua 13:25) West was the Jordan. ver. (Joshua 13:27) The character of the tribe is
throughout strongly marked—fierce and warlike.
Gadara
a strong city situated near the river Hieromax, six miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee, over
against Scythopolis and Tiberias, and 16 Roman miles distant from each of those places. Josephus
calls it the capital of Peraea. The ruins of this city, now called Um Keis, are about two miles in
circumference. The most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs for a
considerable distance around the city. Godet says there is still a population of 200 souls in these
tombs. Gadara was captured by Vespasian on the first outbreak of the war with the Jews, all its
inhabitants were massacred, and the town itself, with the surrounding villages, was reduced to
ashes.
Gadarenes, Girgesenes, Gerasenes
(These three names are used indiscriminately to designate the place where Jesus healed two
demoniacs. The first two are in the Authorized Version. (Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26) In
Gerasenes in place of Gadarenes. The miracle referred to took place, without doubt, near the town
of Gergesa, the modern Kersa, close by the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, and hence in the
country of Gergesenes. But as Gergesa was a small village, and little known, the evangelists, who
wrote for more distant readers, spoke of the event as taking place in the country of the Gadarenes,
so named from its largest city, Gadara; and this country included the country of the Gergesenes as
a state includes a county. The Gerasenes were the people of the district of which Gerasa was the
capital. This city was better known than Gadara or Gergesa; indeed in the Roman age no city of
Palestine was better known. “It became one of the proudest cities of Syria.” It was situated some
30 miles southeast of Gadara, on the borders of Peraea and a little north of the river Jabbok. It is
now called Jerash and is a deserted ruin. The district of the Gerasenes probably included that of
the Gadarenes; so that the demoniac of Gergesa belonged to the country of the Gadarenes and also
to that of the Gerasenes, as the same person may, with equal truth, be said to live in the city or the
state, or in the United States. For those near by the local name would be used; but in writing to a
distant people, as the Greeks and Romans, the more comprehensive and general name would be
given.—ED.)
Gaddi
(fortunate), son of Susi; the Manassite spy sent by Moses to explore Canaan. (Numbers 13:11)
(B.C. 1490.)
Gaddiel
(fortune of God) a Zebulunite, one of the twelve spies. (Numbers 13:10) (B.C. 1490.)
Gadi
A Gadite, father of Menahem a king of Israel. (2 Kings 15:14,17)
Gadites, The
the descendants of Gad, and members of his tribe.
Gaham
(sunburnt), son of Nahor Abraham’s brother, by his concubine Reumah. (Genesis 22:24) (B.C.
about 1900.)
Gahar
(hiding-place) The Bene-Gahar were among the families of Nethinim who returned from the
captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:47; Nehemiah 7:49) (B.C. before 536.)
Gaius
or Cai’us (lord)—
• A Macedonian who accompanied Paul in his travels, and whose life was in danger from the mob
at Ephesus. (Acts 19:29) (A.D. 54.)
• Of Derbe. He went with Paul from Corinth in his last journey to Jerusalem. (Acts 20:4) (A.D. 54.)
• Of Corinth, whom Paul baptized and who was his host in his second journey in that city. (1
Corinthians 1:14; Romans 16:23) (These are supposed by some to be only one person.)
• John’s third epistle is addressed to Christian of this name. We may possibly identify him with No.2.
Galaad
the Greek form of the word Gilead.
Galal
(influential)
• A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph. (1 Chronicles 9:15) (B.C. 536.)
• Another Levite, of the family of Elkanah. (1 Chronicles 9:16)
• A third Levite, son of Jeduthun. (Nehemiah 11:17) (B.C. 536.)
Galatia
(land of the Galli, Gauls). The Roman province of Galatia may be roughly described as the
central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia;
on the east by Pontus; on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia; on the west by Phrygia.—Encyc.
Brit. It derived its name from the Gallic or Celtic tribes who, about 280 B.C., made an irruption
into Macedonia and Thrace. It finally became a Roman province. The Galatia of the New Testament
has really the “Gaul” of the East. The people have always been described as “susceptible of quick
impressions and sudden changes, with a fickleness equal to their courage and enthusiasm, and a
constant liability to that disunion which is the fruit of excessive vanity.—The Galatian churches
were founded by Paul at his first visit, when he was detained among, them by sickness, (Galatians
4:13) during his second missionary journey, about A.D 51. He visited them again on his third
missionary tour.
Galatians, The Epistle To The
was written by the apostle St. Paul not long after his journey through Galatia and Phrygia, (Acts
18:23) and probably in the early portion of his two-and-a-half-years stay at Ephesus, which
terminated with the Pentecost of A.D. 57 or 58. The epistle appears to have been called forth by
the machinations of Judaizing teachers, who, shortly before the date of its composition, had
endeavored to seduce the churches of this province into a recognition of circumcision, (Galatians
5:2,11,12; 6:12) seq., and had openly sought to depreciate the apostolic claims of St. Paul. Comp.
(Galatians 1:1,11) “Since the days of Luther the Epistle to the Galatians has always been held in
high esteem as the gospel’s banner of freedom. To it and the Epistle to the Romans we owe most
directly the springing up and development of the ideas and energies of the Reformation.”—Meyer.
Galbanum
one of the perfumes employed in the preparation of the sacred incense. (Exodus 10:34) The
galbanum of commerce is brought chiefly from India and the Levant. It is a resinous gum of a
brownish-yellow color and strong disagreeable smell, usually met with in masses, but sometimes
found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the plant which
yields it has not been exactly determined.
Galeed
(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount
Gilead in witness of the covenant then entered into between them. (Genesis 31:47,48) comp.
Genesis31:23,25
(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount
Gilead in witness of the masses, but sometimes found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though
galbanum itself is well known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.
Galileans
the inhabitants of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine. The apostles were all Galileans
by either birth or residence. (Acts 1:11) It appears also that the pronunciation of those Jews who
resided in Galilee had become peculiar, probably from their contact with their Gentile neighbors.
(Matthew 26:73)
Galilee
(circuit). This name, which in the Roman age was applied to a large province, seems to have
been originally confined to a little “circuit” of country round Kedesh-Naphtali, in which were
situated the twenty towns given by Solomon to Hiram king of Tyre as payment for his work in
conveying timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem. (Joshua 20:7; 1 Kings 9:11) In the time of our Lord
all Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria and Galilee. (Luke 17:11; Acts 9:31)
Joseph. B.J. iii. 3. The latter included the whole northern section of the country, including the
ancient territories of Issachar, Zebulun, Asher and Naphtali. On the west it was bounded by the
territory of Ptolemais, which probably included the whole plain of Akka to the foot of Carmel. The
southern border ran along the base of Carmel and of the hills of Samaria to Mount Gilboa, and then
descended the valley of Jezreel by Scythopolis to the Jordan. The river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee,
and the upper Jordan to the fountain at Dan, formed the eastern border; and the northern ran from
Dan westward across the mountain ridge till it touched the territory of the Phoenicians. Galilee was
divided into two sections, “Lower” and “Upper.” Lower Galilee included the great plain of Esdraelon
with its offshoots, which ran down to the Jordan and the Lake of Tiberias, and the whole of the hill
country adjoining it on the north to the foot of the mountain range. It was thus one of the richest
and most beautiful sections of Pales-tine. Upper Galilee embraced the whole mountain range lying
between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia. To this region the name “Galilee of the Gentiles” is given
in the Old and New Testaments. (Isaiah 9:1; Matthew 4:16) Galilee was the scene of the greater
part of our Lord’s private life and public acts. It is a remarkable fact that the first three Gospels are
chiefly taken up with our Lord’s ministrations in this province, while the Gospel of John dwells
more upon those in Judea. (Galilee in the time of Christ .—From Rev. Selah Merrill’s late book
(1881) with this title, we glean the following facts: Size .—It is estimated that of the 1000 square
miles in Palestine west of the Jordan, nearly one-third, almost 2000 square miles, belongs to Galilee.
Population—The population is between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000. Dr. Merrill argues for the general
correctness of Josephus’ estimates, who says there were 204 cities and villages in Galilee, the
smallest of which numbered 15,000 inhabitants. Character of the country . Galilee was a region of
great natural fertility. Such is the fertility of the soil that it rejects no plant, for the air is so genial
that it suits every variety. The walnut, which delights above other trees in a wintry climate, grows
here luxuriantly together with the palm tree, which is flourished by heat. It not only possesses the
extraordinary virtue of nourishing fruits of opposite climes, but also maintains a continual supply
of them. Here were found all the productions which made Italy rich and beautiful. Forests covered
its mountains and hills, while its uplands, gentle slopes and broader valleys were rich in pasture,
meadows, cultivated fields, vineyards, olive groves and fruit trees of every kind. Character of the
Galileans .—They were thoroughly a Jewish people. With few exceptions they were wealthy and
in general an influential class. If one should say the Jews were bigoted in religion, he should
remember at the same time that in regard to social, commercial and political relations none were
more cosmopolitan in either sentiment or practice than they. The Galileans had many manufactures,
fisheries, some commerce, but were chiefly an agricultural people. They were eminent for patriotism
and courage, as were their ancestors, with great respect for law and order.—ED.)
Galilee, Sea Of
So called from the province of Galilee, which bordered on the western side. (Matthew 4:18) It
was also called the “Sea of Tiberias,” from the celebrated city of that name. (John 6:1) At its
northwestern angle was a beautiful and fertile plain called “Gennesaret,” and from that it derived
the name of “Lake of Gennesaret.” (Luke 5:1) It was called in the Old Testament “the Sea of
Chinnereth” or “Cinneroth,” (Numbers 34:11; Joshua 12:3) from a town of that name which stood
on or near its shore. (Joshua 19:35) Its modern name is Bahr Tubariyeh . Most of our Lord’s public
life was spent in the environs of this sea. The surrounding region was then the most densely peopled
in all Palestine. no less than nine very populous cities stood on the very shores of the lake. The Sea
of Galilee is of an oval long and six broad. It is 60 miles northeast of Jerusalem and 27 east of the
Mediterranean Sea. The river Jordan enters it at its northern end and passes out at its southern end.
In fact the bed of the lake is just a lower section of the Great Jordan valley. Its more remarkable
feature is its deep depression, being no less than 700 feet below the level of the ocean. The scenery
is bleak and monotonous, being surrounded by a high and almost unbroken wall of hills, on account
of which it is exposed to frequent sudden and violent storms. The great depression makes the climate
of the shores almost tropical. This is very sensibly felt by the traveller in going down from the
plains of Galilee. In summer the heat is intense, and even in early spring the air has something of
an Egyptian balminess. The water of the lake is sweet, cool and transparent; and as the beach is
everywhere pebbly is has a beautiful sparkling look. It abounds in fish now as in ancient times.
There were large fisheries on the lake, and much commerce was carried on upon it.
Gall
• Mereerah, denoting “that which is bitter;” hence the term is applied to the “bile” or “gall” (the
fluid secreted by the liver), from its intense bitterness, (Job 16:13; 20:25) it is also used of the
“poison” of serpents, (Job 20:14) which the ancients erroneously believed was their gall.
• Rosh, generally translated “gall” in the English Bible, is in (Hosea 10:4) rendered “hemlock:” in
(32:33) and Job 20:16 rosh denotes the “poison” or “venom” of serpents. From (29:18) and Lame
3:19 compared with Hose 10:4 It is evident that the Hebrew term denotes some bitter and perhaps
poisonous plant. Other writers have supposed, and with some reason, from (32:32) that some
berry-bearing plant must be intended. Gesenius understands poppies; in which case the gall mingled
with the wine offered to our Lord at his crucifixion, and refused by him, would be an anaesthetic,
and tend to diminish the sense of suffering. Dr. Richardson, “Ten Lectures on Alcohol,” p. 23,
thinks these drinks were given to the crucified to diminish the suffering through their intoxicating
effects.
Gallery
an architectural term describing the porticos or verandas which are not uncommon in eastern
houses. It is doubtful, however, whether the Hebrew words so translated have any reference to such
an object. (According to the latest researches, the colonnade or else wainscoting is meant. (Song
of Solomon 1:17; Ezekiel 41:15)—Schaff.)
Galley
[Ship] Gallim
(fountains). This is given as the native place of the man to whom Michal, David’s wife, was
given. (1 Samuel 25:44) There is no clue to the situation of the place. The name occurs again in
the catalogue of places terrified at the approach of Sennacherib. (Isaiah 10:30)
Gallio
(one who lives on milk), Junius Annaeus Gallio, the Roman proconsul of Achaia when St. Paul
was at Corinth, A.D. 53, under the emperor Claudius. (Acts 18:12) He was brother to Lucius
Annaeus Seneca, the philosopher. Jerome in the Chronicle of Eusebius says that he committed
suicide in 65 A.D. Winer thinks he was put to death by Nero.
Gallows
[Punishments] Gamaliel
(recompense of God).
• Son of Pedahzur; prince or captain of the tribe of Manasseh at the census at Sinai, (Numbers 1:10;
20:20; 7:54,59) and at starting on the march through the wilderness. ch. (Numbers 10:23) (B.C.
1490.)
• A pharisee and celebrated doctor of the law, who gave prudent worldly advice in the Sanhedrin
respecting the treatment of the followers of Jesus of Nazareth. (Acts 5:34) ff. (A.D. 29.) We learn
from (Acts 22:3) that he was the preceptor of St. Paul. He is generally identified with the very
celebrated Jewish doctor Gamaliel, grandson of Hillel, and who is referred to as authority in the
Jewish Mishna.
Games
Among the Greeks the rage for theatrical exhibitions was such that every city of any size
possessed its theatre and stadium. At Ephesus an annual contest was held in honor of Diana. It is
probable that St. Paul was present when these games were proceeding. A direct reference to the
exhibitions that I took place on such occasions is made in (1 Corinthians 15:32) St. Paul’s epistles
abound with allusions to the Greek contests, borrowed probably from the Isthmian games, at which
he may well have been present during his first visit to Corinth. These contests, (1 Timothy 6:12; 2
Timothy 4:7) were divided into two classes, the pancratium, consisting of boxing and wrestling,
and the pentathlon, consisting of leaping, running, quoiting, hurling the spear and wrestling. The
competitors, (1 Corinthians 9:25; 2 Timothy 2:5) required a long and severe course of previous
training, (1 Timothy 4:8) during which a particular diet was enforced. (1 Corinthians 9:25,27) In
the Olympic contests these preparatory exercises extended over a period of ten months, during the
last of which they were conducted under the supervision of appointed officers. The contests took
place in the presence of a vast multitude of spectators, (Hebrews 12:1) the competitors being the
spectacle. (1 Corinthians 4:9; Hebrews 10:33) The games were opened by the proclamation of a
herald, (1 Corinthians 9:27) whose office it was to give out the name and country of each candidate,
and especially to announce the name of the victor before the assembled multitude. The judge was
selected for his spotless integrity; (2 Timothy 4:8) his office was to decide any disputes, (Colossians
3:15) and to give the prize, (1 Corinthians 9:24; Philemon 3:14) consisting of a crown, (2 Timothy
2:6; 4:8) of leaves of wild olive at the Olympic games, and of pine, or at one period ivy, at the
Isthmian games. St. Paul alludes to two only out of the five contests, boxing and running, more
frequently to the latter. The Jews had no public games, the great feasts of religion supplying them
with anniversary occasions of national gatherings.
Gammadim
This word occurs only in (Ezekiel 27:11) A variety of explanations of the term have been
offered.
• One class renders it “pygmies.”
• A second treats it as a geographical or local term.
• A third gives a more general sense to the word “brave warriors.” Hitzig suggests “deserters.” After
all, the rendering in the LXX.—“guards”— furnishes the simplest explanation.
Gamul
(weaned), a priest, the leader of the twenty-second course in the service at the sanctuary. (1
Chronicles 24:17) (B.C. 535.)
Garden
Gardens in the East, as the Hebrew word indicates, are enclosures on the outskirts of towns,
planted with various trees and shrubs. From the allusions in the Bible we learn that they were
surrounded by hedges of thorn, (Isaiah 5:5) or walls of stone. (Proverbs 24:31) For further protection
lodges, (Isaiah 1:8; Lamentations 2:6) or watchtowers, (Mark 12:1) were built in them, in which
sat the keeper, (Job 27:18) to drive away the wild beasts and robbers, as is the case to this day. The
gardens of the Hebrews were planted with flowers and aromatic shrubs, (Song of Solomon 6:2;
4:16) besides olives, fig trees, nuts or walnuts, (Song of Solomon 6:12) pomegranates, and others
for domestic use. (Exodus 23:11; Jeremiah 29:5; Amos 9:14) Gardens of herbs, or kitchen gardens,
are mentioned in (11:10) and 1Kin 21:2 The rose garden in Jerusalem, said to have been situated
westward of the temple mount, it is remarkable as having been one of the few gardens which, from
the time of the prophets, existed within the city walls. The retirement of gardens rendered them
favorite places for devotion.
Gareb
(scabby), one of the heroes of David’s army. (2 Samuel 23:38)
Gareb, The Hill
in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, named only in (Jeremiah 31:39)
Garlic
(Numbers 11:5) is the Allium sativum of Linnaeus, which abounds in Egypt.
Garment
[Dress] Garmite, The
Keilah the Garmite, i.e. the descendant of Gerem, is mentioned in the obscure genealogical lists
of the families of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:19)
Garrison
The Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version are derivatives from the root natsab,
to “place, erect,” which may be applied to a variety of objects.
• Mattsab and mattsabah undoubtedly mean a “garrison” or fortified post. (1 Samuel 13:23; 14:14;
1 Samuel 15; 2 Samuel 23:14)
• Netsib is also used for a “garrison” in (1 Chronicles 11:16) but elsewhere for a “column” erected
in an enemy’s country as a token of conquest. (1 Samuel 13:3)
• The same word elsewhere means “officers” placed over a vanquished people. (2 Samuel 8:6,14;
1 Chronicles 18:13; 2 Chronicles 17:2)
• Mattsebah in (Ezekiel 26:11) means a “pillar.”
Gashmu
a variation of the name Geshem. (Nehemiah 6:6) (B.C. 446.)
Gatam
(a burnt valley), the fourth son of Eliphaz the son of Esau, (Genesis 36:11; 1 Chronicles 1:36)
and one of the “dukes” of Eliphaz. (Genesis 36:16) (B.C. after 1760.)
Gate
The gate and gateways of eastern cities anciently held and still hold an important part, not only
in the defence but in the public economy of the place. They are thus sometimes taken as representing
the city itself. (Genesis 22:17; 24:60; 12:12; Judges 5:8; Ruth 4:10; Psalms 87:2; 122:2) Among
the special purposes for which they were used may be mentioned.
• As places of public resort. (Genesis 19:1; 23:10; 34:20; 24; 1 Samuel 4:18) etc.
• Places for public deliberation, administration of Justice, or of audience for kings and rulers or
ambassadors. (16:18; 21:19; 25:7; Joshua 20:4; Judges 9:35) etc.
• Public markets. (2 Kings 7:1) In heathen towns the open spaces near the gates appear to have been
sometimes used as places for sacrifice. (Acts 14:13) comp 2Kin 23:8 Regarded therefore as
positions of great importance, the gates of cities were carefully guarded, and closed at nightfall.
(3:5; Joshua 2:5,7; Judges 9:40,44) They contained chambers over the gateway. (2 Samuel 18:24)
The doors themselves of the larger gates mentioned in Scripture were two leaved, plated with
metal, closed with locks and fastened with metal bars. (3:6; Psalms 107:16; Isaiah 46:1,2) Gates
not defended by iron were of course liable to be set on fire by an enemy. (Judges 9:52) The gateways
of royal palaces and even of private houses were often richly ornamented. Sentences from the law
were inscribed on and above the gates. (6:9; Isaiah 64:12; Revelation 21:21) The gates of Solomon’s
temple were very massive and costly, being overlaid with gold and carving. (1 Kings 6:34,35; 2
Kings 18:16) Those of the holy place were of olive wood, two-leaved and overlaid with gold;
those of the temple of fir. (1 Kings 6:31,32,34; Ezekiel 41:23,24)
Gath
(a wine press), one of the five royal cities of the Philistines; (Joshua 13:3; 1 Samuel 6:17) and
the native place of the giant Goliath. (1 Samuel 17:4,23) It probably stood upon the conspicuous
hill now called Tell-es-Safieh, upon the side of the plain of Philistia, at the foot of the mountains
of Judah; 10 miles east of Ashdod, and about the same distance south by east of Ekron. It is irregular
in form, and about 200 feet high. Gath occupied a strong position, (2 Chronicles 11:8) on the border
of Judah and Philistia, (1 Samuel 21:10; 1 Chronicles 18:1) and from its strength and resources
forming the key of both countries, it was the scene of frequent struggles, and was often captured
and recaptured. (2 Kings 12:17; 2 Chronicles 11:8; 26:6; Amos 6:2) The ravages of war to which
Gath was exposed appear to have destroyed it at a comparatively early period, as it is not mentioned
among the other royal cities by the later prophets. (Zephaniah 2:4; Zechariah 9:5,6) It is familiar
to the Bible student as the scene of one of the most romantic incidents in the life of King David.
(1 Samuel 21:10-15)
Gathhepher, Or Gittahhepher
(wine-press on the hill), a town on the border of the territory of Zebulun, not far from Japhia,
now ’Yafa, (Joshua 19:12,13) celebrated as the native place of the prophet Jonah. (2 Kings 14:25)
El-Meshhad, a village two-miles east of Sefurieh, is the ancient Gath-hepher.
Gathrimmon
(press of the pomegranate)
• A city given out of the tribe of Dan to the Levites. (Joshua 21:24; 1 Chronicles 6:69) situated on
the plain of Philistia, apparently not far from Joppa. (Joshua 19:45)
• A town of the half tribe of Manasseh west of the Jordan, assigned to the Levites. (Joshua 21:25)
The reading Gath-rimmon is probably an error of the transcribers.
Gaza
(the fortified; the strong) (properly Azzah), one of the five chief cities of the Philistines. It is
remarkable for its continuous existence and importance from the very earliest times. The secret of
this unbroken history is to be found in the situation of Gaza. It is the last town in the southwest of
Palestine, on the frontier towards Egypt. The same peculiarity of situation has made Gaza important
in a military sense. Its name means “the strong;” and this was well elucidated in its siege by
Alexander the Great, which lasted five months. In the conquest of Joshua the territory of Gaza is
mentioned as one which he was not able to subdue. (Joshua 10:41; 11:22; 13:3) It was assigned to
the tribe of Judah, (Joshua 15:47) and that tribe did obtain possession of it, (Judges 1:18) but did
not hold it long, (Judges 3:3; 13:1) and apparently it continued through the time of Samuel, Saul
and David to be a Philistine city. 1Sam 6:17; 14:52; 31:1; 2Sam 21:15 Solomon became master of
“Azzah,” (1 Kings 4:24) but in after times the same trouble with the Philistines recurred. (2
Chronicles 21:16; 26:6; 28:18) The passage where Gaza is mentioned in the New Testament (Acts
8:26) is full of interest. It is the account of the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch on his return from
Jerusalem to Egypt. Gaza is the modern Ghuzzeh, a Mohammedan town of about 16,000 inhabitants,
situated partly on an oblong hill of moderate height and partly on the lower ground. The climate
of the place is almost tropical, but it has deep wells of excellent water. There are a few palm trees
in the town, and its fruit orchards are very productive; but the chief feature of the neighborhood is
the wide-spread olive grove to the north and northeast
Gazathites, The
(Joshua 13:3) the inhabitants of Gaza.
Gazer
(2 Samuel 5:25; 1 Chronicles 14:16) [Gezer] Gazez
(shearer), a name which occurs twice in (1 Chronicles 2:46)—first as son of Caleb by Ephah
his concubine, and second as son of Haran, the son of the same woman. The second is possibly
only a repetition of the first (B.C. after 1688.)
Gazites, The
Inhabitants of Gaza. (Judges 16:2)
Gazzam
(devouring). The Bene-Gazzam were among the familiar of the Nethinim who returned from
the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:48; Nehemiah 7:51) (B.C. 536.)
Geba
(a hill), a city of Benjamin, with “suburbs,” allotted to the priests. (Joshua 21:17; 1 Chronicles
6:60) It is named amongst the first group of the Benjamite towns—apparently those lying near to
and along the north boundary. (Joshua 18:24) Here the name is given as Gaba. During the wars of
the earlier part of the reign of Saul, Geba was held as a garrison by the Philistines, (1 Samuel 13:3)
but they were ejected by Jonathan. It is now the modern village of Jeba, which stands picturesquely
on the top of its steep terraced hill, six miles north of Jerusalem, on the very edge of the great Wady
Suweinit, looking northward to the opposite village of ancient Michmash, which also retains its
old name of Mukhmas .
Gebal
(mountain), a maritime town of Phoenicia, near Tyre, (Ezekiel 27:9) known by the Greeks as
Byblus. It is called Jebail by the Arabs, thus reviving the old biblical name.
Geber
(manly).
• The son of Geber resided in the fortress of Ramoth-gilead, and had charge of Havoth-jair and the
district of Argob. (1 Kings 4:13) (B.C. 1013).
• Geber the son of Uri had a district south of the former—the “land of Gilead.” (1 Kings 4:19)
Gebim
(grasshoppers), a village north of Jerusalem, (Isaiah 10:31) apparently between Anathoth (the
modern Anata) and the ridge on which Nob was situated.
Gedaliah
(God is my greatness), son of Ahikam (Jeremiah’s protector, (Jeremiah 26:24) and grandson
of Shaphan the secretary of King Josiah. After the destruction of the temple, B.C. 588,
Nebuchadnezzar departed from Judea, leaving Gedaliah with a Chaldean guard, (Jeremiah 40:5)
at Mizpah to govern the vinedressers and husbandmen, (Jeremiah 52:16) who were exempted from
captivity. Jeremiah jointed Gedaliah; and Mizpah became the resort of Jews from various quarters.
(Jeremiah 40:6,11) He was murdered by Ishmael two months after his appointment.
Gedeon
The Greek form of the Hebrew name Gideon. (Hebrews 11:32)
Geder
(a wall). The king of Geder was one of the thirty-one kings who were overcome by Joshua on
the west of the Jordan. (Joshua 12:13) (B.C. 1445.) It is possible that it may be the same place as
the Geder named in (1 Chronicles 4:39)
Gederah
(a sheepfold), a town of Judah in the lowland country, (Joshua 15:36) apparently in its eastern
part. No town bearing this name has, however, been yet discovered in this hitherto little-explored
district.
Gederathite, The
the native of a place called Gederah, apparently in Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 12:4)
Gederite, The
the native of some place named Geder or Gederah. (1 Chronicles 27:28)
Gederoth
(sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:41; 2 Chronicles 28:18)
Gederothaim
(two sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah, (Joshua 15:36) named next in order to
Gederah.
Gedor
(a wall), a town int he mountainous part of Judah, (Joshua 15:58) a few miles north of Hebron.
Robinson discovered a Jedur halfway between Bethlehem and Hebron, about two miles west of
the road.
Gehazi
(valley of vision), the servant or boy of Elisha. He was sent as the prophet’s messenger on two
occasions to the good Shunammite, (2 Kings 4:1) … (B.C. 889-887); obtained fraudulently money
and garments from Naaman, was miraculously smitten with incurable leprosy, and was dismissed
from the prophet’s service. (2 Kings 5:1) … Later in the history he is mentioned as being engaged
in relating to King Joram all the great things which Elisha had done. (2 Kings 8:4,5)
Gehenna
[Hinnom] Geliloth
(circuit), a place named among the marks of the south boundary line of the tribe of Benjamin.
(Joshua 18:17) The name Geliloth never occurs again in this locality, and it therefore seems probable
that Gilgal is the right reading.
Gemalli
(camel-driver), the father of Ammiel, the Danite spy. (Numbers 13:12) (B.C. 1490.)
Gemariah
(perfected by Jehovah).
• Son of Shaphan the scribe, and father of Michaiah. He was one of the nobles of Judah, and had a
chamber int he house of the Lord, from which Baruch read Jeremiah’s alarming prophecy in the
ears of all the people, B.C. 606. (Jeremiah 36:1) …
• Son of Hilkiah, was made the bearer of Jeremiah’s letter to the captive Jews. (Jeremiah 29:3) (B.C.594.)
Gems
[Stones, Precious, PRECIOUS] Genealogy
In Hebrew the term for genealogy or pedigree is “the book of the generations;” and because
the oldest histories were usually drawn up on a genealogical basis, the expression often extended
to the whole history, as is the case with the Gospel of St. Matthew, where “the book of the generation
of Jesus Christ” includes the whole history contained in that Gospel. The promise of the land of
Canaan to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob successively, and the separation of the Israelites
from the Gentile world; the expectation of Messiah as to spring from the tribe of Judah; the
exclusively hereditary priesthood of Aaron with its dignity and emoluments; the long succession
of kings in the line of David; and the whole division and occupations of the land upon genealogical
principles by the tribes, occupation of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, families
and houses of fathers, gave a deeper importance to the science of genealogy among the Jews than
perhaps any other nation. When Zerubbabel brought back the captivity from Babylon, one of his
first cares seems to have been to take a census of those that returned, and to settle them according
to their genealogies. Passing on to the time of the birth of Christ, we have a striking incidental proof
of the continuance of the Jewish genealogical economy in the fact that when Augustus ordered the
census of the empire to be taken, the Jews in the province of Syria immediately went each one to
his own city. The Jewish genealogical records continued to be kept till near the destruction of
Jerusalem. But there can be little doubt that the registers of the Jewish tribes and families perished
at the destruction of Jerusalem, and not before. It remains to be said that just notions of the nature
of the Jewish genealogical records are of great importance with a view to the right interpretation
of Scripture. Let it only be remembered that these records have respect to political and territorial
divisions as much as to strictly genealogical descent, and it will at once be seen how erroneous a
conclusion it may be that all who are called “sons” of such or such a patriarch or chief father must
necessarily be his very children. Of any one family or house became extinct, some other would
succeed to its place, called after its own chief father. Hence of course a census of any tribe drawn
up at a later period would exhibit different divisions from one drawn up at an earlier. The same
principle must be borne in mind in interpreting any particular genealogy Again, when a pedigree
was abbreviated, it would naturally specify such generations as would indicates from what chief
houses the person descended. Females are named in genealogies when there is anything remarkable
about them, or when any right or property is transmitted through them. See (Genesis 11:29; 22:23;
25:1-4; 35:22-26; Exodus 6:23; Numbers 26:33)
Genealogy Of Jesus Christ
The New Testament gives us the genealogy of but one person, that of our Saviour. This is given
because it was important to prove that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies spoken of him. Only as the
son and heir of David should he be the Messiah. The following propositions will explain the true
construction of these genealogies:—
• They are both the genealogies of Joseph, i.e. of Jesus Christ as the reputed and legal son of Joseph
and Mary.
• The genealogy of St. Matthew is Joseph’s genealogy as legal successor to the throne of David.
St. Luke’s is Joseph’s private Genealogy, exhibiting his real birth as David’s son, and thus showing
why he was heir to Solomon’s crown. The simple principle that one evangelist exhibits that
genealogy which contained the successive heir to David’s and Solomon’s throne, while the other
exhibits the paternal stem of him who was the heir, explains all the anomalies of the two pedigrees,
their agreements as well as their discrepancies, and the circumstance of there being two at all.
• Mary, the mother of Jesus, was in all probability the daughter of Jacob, and first cousin to Joseph
her husband. Thus: Matthan or Matthat Father of Jacob, Heli Jacob Father of Mary = Jacob’e heir
was (Joseph) Heli Father of Joseph JESUS, called Christ. (Godet, Lange and many others take
the ground that Luke gives the genealogy of Mary, rendering (Luke 3:23) thus: Jesus “being (as
was suppposed) the son of Joseph, (but in reality) the son of Heli.” In this case Mary, as declared
in the Targums, was the daughter of Heli, and Heli was the grandfather of Jesus. Mary’s name
was omitted because “ancient sentiment did not comport with the mention of the mother as the
genealogical link.” So we often find in the Old Testament the grandson called the son. This view
has this greatly in its favor, that it shows that Jesus was not merely the legal but the actual
descendant of David; and it would be very strange that in the gospel accounts, where so much is
made of Jesus being the son and heir of David and of his kingdom his real descent from David
should not be given.—ED.)
Generation
In the long-lived patriarchal age a generation seems to have been computed at 100 years,
(Genesis 15:16) comp. Genesis15:13 and Eccl 12:40 But subsequently the reckoning was the same
which has been adopted by modern civilized nations, viz. from thirty to forty years (Job 42:16)
(Generation is also used to signify the men of an age or time, as contemporaries, (Genesis 6:9;
Isaiah 53:8) posterity, especially in legal formulae, (Leviticus 3:17) etc.; fathers, or ancestors.
(Psalms 49:19)
Genesis
(origin), the first book of the law or Pentateuch, so called from its title ia the Septuagint, that
is, Creation . Its author was Moses. The date of writing was probably during the forty-years
wanderings in the wilderness, B.C. 1491-1451. Time .—The book of Genesis covered 2369
years,—from the creation of Adam, A.M 1, to the death of Joseph, A.M. 2369, or B.C. 1635.
Character and purpose .—The book of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) describes the
steps which led to the establishment of the theocracy. It is a part of the writer’s plan to tell us what
the divine preparation of the world was in order to show, first, the significance of the call of
Abraham, and next, the true nature of the Jewish theocracy. He begins with the creation of the
world, because the God who created the world and the God who revealed himself to the fathers is
the same God. The book of Genesis has thus a character at once special and universal. Construction
.—It is clear that Moses must have derived his knowledge of the events which he records in Genesis
either from immediate divine revelation or from oral tradition or written documents. The nature of
many of the facts related, and the minuteness of the narration, render it extremely improbable that
immediate revelation was the source from whence they were drawn. That his knowledge should
have been derived from oral tradition appears morally impossible when we consider the great
number of names, ages, dates and minute events which are recorded. The conclusion then, seems
fair that he must have obtained his information from written documents coeval, or nearly so, with
the events which they recorded, and composed by persons intimately acquainted with the subjects
to which they relate. He may have collected these, with additions from authentic tradition or existing
monuments under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, into a single book. Certain it is that several of
the first chapters of Genesis have the air of being made up of selections from very ancient documents,
written by different authors at different periods. The variety which is observable in the names and
titles of the Supreme Being is appealed to among the most striking proofs of this fact. This is obvious
in the English translation, but still more so in the Hebrew original. In Gen 1 to 2:3, which is really
one piece of composition, as the title, v. 4, “These are the generations,” shows, the name of the
Most High is uniformly Elohim, God. In ch. (Genesis 2:4) to ch. 3, which may be considered the
second document, the title is uniformly Yehovah Elohim, Lord God ; and in the third, including
ch. 4, it is Yehovah, Lord, only; while in ch. 5 it is Elohim, God only, except in v. 29, where a
quotation is made, and Yehovah used. It is hardly conceivable that all this should be the result of
mere accident. The changes of the name correspond exactly to the changes in the narratives and
the titles of the several pieces.” Now, do all these accurate quotations,” says Professor Stowe,
“impair the credit of the Mosaic books, or increase it? Is Marshall’s Life of Washington to be
regarded as unworthy of credit because it contains copious extracts from Washington’s
correspondence and literal quotations from important public documents? Is not its value greatly
enhanced by this circumstance? The objection is altogether futile. In the common editions of the
Bible the Pentateuch occupies about one hundred and fifty pages, of which perhaps ten may be
taken up with quotations. This surely is no very large proportion for an historical work extending
through so long a period.”—Bush. On the supposition that writing was known to Adam, Gen. 1-4,
containing the first two of these documents, formed the Bible of Adam’s descendants, or the
antediluvians. Gen 1 to 11:9, being the sum of these two and the following three, constitutes the
Bible of the descendants of Noah. The whole of Genesis may be called the Bible of the posterity
of Jacob; and the five Books of the Law were the first Bible of Israel as a nation.—Canon Cook.
Gennesaret
(garden of the prince), Land of. It is generally believed that this term was applied to the fertile
crescent-shaped plain on the western shore of the lake, extending from Khan Minyeh (two or three
miles south of Capernaum (Tel-Hum) on the north to the steep hill behind Mejdel (Magdala) on
the south, and called by the Arabs el-Ghuweir, “the little Ghor.” Mr. Porter gives the length as three
miles, and the greatest breadth as about one mile. Additional interest is given to the land of
Gennesaret, or el-Ghuweir, by the probability that its scenery suggested the parable of the sower.
It is mentioned only twice in Scripture – (Matthew 14:34; Mark 6:53) Compare Luke 5:1
Gennesaret, Sea Of
[See Galilee, Sea Of, SEA OF] Gennesareth
Inaccurately written for [Gennesaret] Gentiles
(nations). All the people who were not Jews were so called by them, being aliens from the
worship, rites and privileges of Israel. The word was used contemptuously by them. In the New
Testament it is used as equivalent to Greek. This use of the word seems to have arisen from the
almost universal adaption of the Greek language.
Genubath
the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess, the sister of Tahpenes,
the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the latter part of the reign of David. (1 Kings
11:20) comp. 1Kin 11:16 (B.C. 1015.)
Gera
(a grain), one of the “sons,” i.e. descendants, of Benjamin. (Genesis 46:21) Gera, who is named,
(Judges 3:15) as the ancestor of Ehud, and in (2 Samuel 16:5) as the ancestor of Shimei who cursed
David, is probably also the same person (though some consider them different persons).
Gerah
[Weights And Measures AND Measures] Gerar
(a lodging-place), a very ancient city south of Gaza. It occurs chiefly in Genesis, (Genesis 10:19;
20:1; 26:17) also incidentally in (2 Chronicles 14:13,14) It must have trenched on the “south” or
“south country” of later Palestine. From a comparison of (Genesis 21:32) with Genesis26:23,26
Beersheba would seem to be just on the verge of this territory, and perhaps to be its limit towards
the northeast.
Gerasenes
(Luke 8:26) Revised Version; [See Gadarenes, Girgesenes, Gerasenes] Gergesenes
[See Gadarenes, Girgesenes, Gerasenes] Gerizim
(cutters), a limestone mountain, 2855 feet high (800 feet above the valley at its foot), in Ephraim,
near Shechem (Sychar), from which the blessings were read to the Israelites on entering Canaan.
[See Ebal, Mount] According to the traditions of the Samaritans it was here that Abraham sacrificed
Isaac, that Melchizedek met the patriarch, that Jacob built an altar, and at its base dug a well, the
ruins of which are still seen. Some scholars think there is ground for the first belief (so Smith); but
careful observers of the locality discredit it and believe Moriah to be the spot. [See Moriah] Gerizim
was the site of the Samaritan temple, which was built there after the captivity, in rivalry with the
temple at Jerusalem. [See Samaritans] Gerizim is still to the Samaritans what Jerusalem is to the
Jews and Mecca to the Mohammedans.
Gerizites
(1 Samuel 27:8) [Gerzites] Gershom
(a stranger or exile).
• The first-born son of Moses and Zipporah. (Exodus 2:22; 18:3) (B.C. 1530.)
• The form under which the name Gershon—the eldest son of Levi—is given in several passages
of Chronicles, viz., (1 Chronicles 6:16,17,20,43,62,71; 15:7)
• The representative of the priestly family of Phinehas, among those who accompanied Ezra from
Babylon. (Ezra 8:2) (B.C. 536.)
Gershon
(exile). The eldest of the three sons of Levi, born before the descent of Jacob’s family into
Egypt. (Genesis 46:11; Exodus 6:16) (B.C. before 1706.) But, though the eldest born, the families
of Gershon were outstripped in fame by their younger brethren of Kohath, from whom sprang
Moses and the priestly line of Aaron.
Gershonites, The
the family descended from Gershon or Gershom, the son of Levi. “THE GERSH0NITE,” as
applied to individuals, occurs in (1 Chronicles 26:21) The sons of Gershon (the Gershonites) had
charge of the fabrics of the tabernacle—the coverings, curtains, hangings and cords. (Numbers
3:25,26; 4:25,26)
Gerzites
(dwellers in the desert), The, a tribe who with the Geshurites and the Amalekites occupied the
land between the south of Palestine and Egypt in the time of Saul. (1 Samuel 27:8) In the name of
Mount Gerizim we have the only remaining trace of the presence of this old tribe of Bedouins in
central Palestine.
Gesham
(filthy) (sometimes written GESHAN), one of the sons of Judah, in the genealogy of Judah and
family of Caleb. (1 Chronicles 2:47)
Geshem
and Gash’mu (rain), an Arabian, mentioned in (Nehemiah 2:19) and Nehe 6:1,2,6 (B.C. 446.)
We may conclude that he was an inhabitant of Arabia Petraea or of the Arabian desert, and probably
the chief of a tribe.” Gashum said it” made him a type of those who create a common report.
Geshur
(a bridge), a little principality of Syria, northeast of Bashan. (3:14; 2 Samuel 15:8) It ia highly
probable that Geshur was a section of the wild and rugged region now called el-Lejah, still a refuge
for criminals and outlaws. [Argob] Geshuri And Geshurites
• The inhabitants of Geshur. (3:14; Joshua 12:5; 13:11)
• An ancient tribe which dwelt in the desert between Arabia and Philistia. (Joshua 13:2; 1 Samuel
27:8)
Gether
(fear), the third in order of the sons of Aram. (Genesis 10:23) No satisfactory trace of the people
sprung from this stock has been found.
Gethsemane
(an oil-press), a small “farm,” (Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32) situated across the brook Kedron
(John 18:1) probably at the foot of Mount Olivet, (Luke 22:39) to the northwest and about one-half
or three quarters of a mile English from the walls of Jerusalem, and 100 yards east of the bridge
over the Kedron. There was a “garden,” or rather orchard, attached to it, to which the olive, fig and
pomegranate doubtless invited resort by their hospitable shade. And we know from the evangelists
(Luke 22:39) And (John 18:2) that our Lord ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. But
Gethsemane has not come down to us as a scene of mirth; its inexhaustible associations are the
offspring of a single event—the agony of the Son of God on the evening preceding his passion. A
garden, with eight venerable olive trees, and a grotto to the north detached from it, and in closer
connection with the church of the sepulchre of the Virgin, are pointed out as the Gethsemane.
Against the contemporary antiquity of the olive trees it has been urged that Titus cut down all the
trees about Jerusalem. The probability would seem to be that they were planted by Christian hands
to mark the spot unless, like the sacred olive of the Acropolis, they may have reproduced themselves.
Geuel
(majesty of God), son of Machi the Gadite spy. (Numbers 13:15) (B.C 1490.)
Gezer
(a precipice), an ancient city of Canaan, whose king, Hiram or Elam, coming to the assistance
of Lachish, was killed with all his people by Joshua. (Joshua 10:33; 12:12) It formed one of the
landmarks on the north boundary of Ephraim, between the lower Beth-horon and the Mediterranean,
(Joshua 16:3) the western limit of the tribe (1 Chronicles 7:28) It was allotted with its suburbs to
the Kohathite Levites, (Joshua 21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67) but the original inhabitants were not
dispossessed, (Judges 1:29) and even down to the reign of Solomon the Canaanites were still
dwelling there, and paying tribute to Israel (1 Kings 9:16) It was burned by Pharaoh in Solomon’s
time, (1 Kings 9:15-17) and given to Solomon’s Egyptian wife, and rebuilt by him.
Gezrites The
The word which the Jewish critics have substituted in the margin of the Bible for the ancient
reading, “the Gerizite.” (1 Samuel 27:8) [Gerizites, THE] Giah
(a waterfall), a place named only in (2 Samuel 2:24) to designate the position of the hill Ammah.
Giants
men of extraordinary size or height.
• They are first spoken of in (Genesis 6:4) under the name Nephilim. We are told in (Genesis 6:1-4)
that “there were Nephilim in the earth,” and that afterwards the “sons of God” mingling with the
beautiful “daughters of mens produced a race of violent and insolent Gibborim (Authorized Version
“mighty men”).
• The Rephalim, a name which frequently occurs. The earliest mention of them is the record of their
defeat by Chedorlaomer and some allied kings at Ashteroth Karnaim. The “valley of Rephaim,”
(2 Samuel 5:18; 1 Chronicles 11:15; Isaiah 17:5) a rich valley southwest of Jerusalem, derived its
name from them. They were probably an aboriginal people of which the EMIM, Anakim and
Zuzim, The [which see] were branches. [See also Goliath] Gibbar
(gigantic), the father of some who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon. (Ezra 2:20)
Gibbethon
(a hill), a town allotted to the tribe of Dan, (Joshua 19:44) and afterwards given with its “suburbs”
to the Kohathite Levites. ch. (Joshua 21:23)
Gibea
(a hill). Sheva “the father of Macbenah” and “father of Gibea” is mentioned with other names,
unmistakably those of places and not persons, among the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:49)
comp. 1Chr 2:42 This would seem to point out Gibea.
Gibeah
a word employed in the Bible to denote a hill. Like most words of this kind it gave its name to
several towns and places in Palestine, which would doubtless be generally on or near a hill. They
are—
• Gibeah, a city in the mountain district of Judah, named with Maon and the southern Carmel,
(Joshua 15:57) and comp. 1Chr 2:49 etc.
• Gibeah of Benjamin first appears in the tragical story of the Levite and his concubine. (Judges
19:20) It was then a “city,” with the usual open street or square, (Judges 19:15,17,20) and containing
700 “chosen men,” ch. (Judges 20:15) probably the same whose skill as slingers is preserved in
the next verse. In many particulars Gibeah agrees very closely with Tuleil-el-Ful, a conspicuous
eminence just four mlles north of Jerusalem, to the right of the road. We next meet with Glbeah
of Benjamin during the Philistine wars of Saul and Jonathan. (1 Samuel 13:15,16) It now bears
its full title. As “Gibeah of Benjamin” this place is referred to in (2 Samuel 23:29) (comp. 1Chr
11:31), and as “Gibeah” it is mentioned by Hosea, (Hosea 5:8; 9:9; 10:9) but it does not again
appear in the history. It is, however, almost without doubt identical with
• Gibeah of Saul. This is not mentioned as Saul’s city till after his anointing, (1 Samuel 10:26) when
is said to have gone “home” to Gibeah. In the subsequent narrative the town bears its full name.
ch (1 Samuel 11:4)
• Gibeah in Kirjath-jearim was no doubt a hill in that city, and the place in which the ark remained
from the time of its return by the Philistines till its removal by David. (2 Samuel 6:3,4) comp.
1Sam 7:1,2
• Gibeah in the field, named only in (Judges 20:31) as the place to which one of the “highways” led
from Gibeah of Benjamin. It is probably the same as Geba. The “meadows of Gaba” (Authorized
Version Gibeah), (Judges 20:33) have no connection with the “field,” the Hebrew word being
entirely different.
Gibeath
probably the same as, Gibeah OF Benjamin, The Land Of. (Joshua 18:28)
Gibeon
(hill city), one of the four, cities of the Hivites, the inhabitants of which made a league with
Joshua, (Joshua 9:3-15) and thus escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai. Comp. ch. (Joshua 11:19)
Gibeon lay within the territory of Benjamin, ch. (Joshua 18:25) and with its “suburbs” was allotted
to the priests, ch. (Joshua 21:17) of whom it became afterwards a principal station. It retains its
ancient name almost intact, el-Jib . Its distance from Jerusalem by the main road is about 6 1/2
miles; but there is a more direct road reducing it to five miles.
Gibeonites, The
the people of Gibeon, and perhaps also of the three cities associated with Gibeon, (Joshua
9:17)—Hivites; and who, on the discover of the stratagem by which they had obtained the protection
of the Israelites, were condemned to be perpetual bondmen, hewers of wood and drawers of water
for the congregation and for the house of God and altar of Jehovah. (Joshua 9:23,27) Saul appears
to have broken this covenant, and in a fit of enthusiasm or patriotism to have killed some and
devised a general massacre of the rest. (2 Samuel 21:1,2,5) This was expiated many years after by
giving up seven men of Saul’s descendants to the Gibeonites, who hung them or crucified them
“before Jehovah”—as a kind of sacrifice— in Gibeah, Saul’s own town. ch. (2 Samuel 21:4,6,9)
Giblites, The
[Gebal] Giddalti
(I have trained up), one of the sons of Heman, the king’s seer. (1 Chronicles 25:4)
Giddel
(very great).
• Children of Giddel were among the Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel.
(Ezra 2:47; Nehemiah 7:49)
• Bene-Giddel were also among the “servants of Solomon” who returned to Judea in the name
caravan. (Ezra 2:56; Nehemiah 7:58) (B.C. 536.)
Gideon
(he that cuts down), youngest son of Joash of the Abiezrites, an undistinguished family who
lived at Ophrah, a town probably on the west of Jordan, (Judges 6:15) in the territory of Manasseh,
near Shechem. He was the fifth recorded judge of Israel, and for many reasons the greatest of them
all. When we first hear of him he was grown up and had sons, (Judges 6:11; 8:20) and from the
apostrophe of the angel, ch. (Judges 6:12) we may conclude that he had already distinguished
himself in war against the roving bands of nomadic robbers who had oppressed Israel for seven
years. When the angel appeared, Gideon was threshing wheat with a flail in the wine-press, to
conceal it from the predatory tyrants. His call to be a deliverer, and his destruction of Baal’s altar,
are related in Judges 6. After this begins the second act of Gideon’s life. Clothed by the Spirit of
God, (Judges 6:34) comp. 1Chr 12:18; Luke 24:49 He blew a trumpet, and was joined by Zebulun,
Naphtali and even the reluctant Asher. Strengthened by a double sign from God, he reduced his
army of 32,000 by the usual proclamation. (20:8) comp. 1 Macc. 3:56. By a second test at “the
spring of trembling the further reduced the number of his followers to 300. (Judges 7:5) seq. The
midnight attack upon the Midianites, their panic, and the rout and slaughter that followed are told
in (Judges 7:1) … The memory of this splendid deliverance took deep root in the national traditions.
(1 Samuel 12:11; Psalms 83:11; Isaiah 9:4; 10:26; Hebrews 11:32) After this there was a peace of
forty years, and we see Gideon in peaceful possession of his well-earned honors, and surrounded
by the dignity of a numerous household. (Judges 8:29-31) It is not improbable that, like Saul, he
owed a part of his popularity to his princely appearance. (Judges 8:18) In this third stage of his life
occur alike his most noble and his most questionable acts viz., the refusal of the monarchy on
theocratic grounds, and the irregular consecration of a jewelled ephod formed out of the rich spoils
of Midian, which proved to the Israelites a temptation to idolatry although it was doubtless intended
for use in the worship of Jehovah.
Gideoni
(a cutting down), a Benjamite, father of Abidan. (Numbers 1:11; 7:60,65; 10:24)
Gidom
(desolation), a place named only in (Judges 20:45) It would appear to have been situated between
Gibeah (Tuliel-el-Ful) and the cliff Rimmon.
Giereagle
an unclean bird mentioned in (Leviticus 11:18) and Deuteronomy 14:17 Identical in reality as
in name with the racham, of the Arabs, viz., the Egyptian vulture.
Gift
The giving and receiving of presents has in all ages been not only a more frequent but also a
more formal and significant proceeding in the East than among ourselves. We cannot adduce a
more remarkable proof of the important part which presents play in the social life of the East than
the fact that the Hebrew language possesses no less than fifteen different expressions for the one
idea. The mode of presentation was with as much parade as possible. The refusal of a present was
regarded us a high indignity. No less an insult was it not to bring a present when the position of
the parties demanded it. (1 Samuel 10:27)
Gihon
(a stream).
• The second river of Paradise. (Genesis 2:13) [Eden] • A place near Jerusalem, memorable as the scene of the anointing and proclamation of Solomon
as king. (1 Kings 1:33,38,45)
Gilalai
(weighty), one of the priests’ sons at the consecration of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah
12:36) (B.C. 446.)
Gilboa
(a bubbling spring) a mountain range on the eastern side of the plain of Esdraelon, rising over
the city of Jezreel. Comp. (1 Samuel 28:4) with 1Sam 29:1 It is mentioned in Scripture only in
connection with one event in Israelitish history, the defeat and death of Saul and Jonathan by the
Philistines. (1 Samuel 31:11; 2 Samuel 1:6; 21:12; 1 Chronicles 10:1,8) Of the identity of Gilboa
with the ridge which stretches eastward from the ruins of Jezreel no doubt can be entertained. The
village is now called Jelbou .
Gilead
(rocky region).
• A mountainous region bounded on the west by the Jordan, on the north by Bashan, on the east by
the Arabian plateau, and on the south by Moab and Ammon. (Genesis 31:21; 3:12-17) It is
sometimes called “Mount Gilead,” (Genesis 31:25) sometimes “the land of Gilead,” (Numbers
32:1) and sometimes simply “Gilead.” (Psalms 60:7; Genesis 37:25) The name Gilead, as is usual
in Palestine, describes the physical aspect of the country: it signifies “a hard rocky region.” The
mountains of Gilead, including Pisgah, Abarim and Peor, have a real elevation of from 2000 to
3000 feet; but their apparent elevation on the western side is much greater, owing to the depression
of the Jordan valley, which averages about 3000 feet. Their outline is singularly uniform, resembling a
massive wall running along the horizon. Gilead was specially noted for its balm collected from
“balm of Gilead” trees, and worth twice its weight in silver.
• Possibly the name of a mountain west of the Jordan, near Jezreel. (Judges 7:3) We are inclined,
however, to think that the true reading in this place should be Gilboa.
• Son of Machir, grandson of Manasseh. (Numbers 26:29,30)
• The father of Jephthah. (Judges 11:1,2)
Gileadites, The
(Numbers 26:29; Judges 10:3; 12:4,5), a branch of the tribe of Manasseh, descended from
Gilead.
Gilgal
(a wheel; rolling).
• The site of the first camp of the Israelites on the west of the Jordan, the place at which they passed
the first night after crossing the river, and where the twelve stones were set up which had been
taken from the bed of the stream, (Joshua 4:19,20) comp. Josh 4:3 Where also they kept the first
passover in the land of Canaan ch. (Joshua 5:10) It was “in the east border of Jericho,” apparently
on a hillock or rising ground, (Joshua 5:3) comp. Josh 5:9 In the Arboth-Jericho (Authorized
Version “the plains”), that is, the hot depressed district of the Ghor which lay between the town
and the Jordan. ch. (Joshua 5:10) Here Samuel was judge, and Saul was made king. We again
have a glimpse of it, some sixty years later, in the history of David’s return to Jerusalem. (2 Samuel
19:40) A Gilgal is spoken of in (Joshua 15:7) in describing the north border of Judah. In (Joshua
18:17) it is given as Geliloth. Gilgal near Jericho is doubtless intended.
• In (2 Kings 2:1,2; 4:38) is named a Gilgal visited by Elijah and Elisha. This could not be the Gilgal
of the low plain of the Jordan, for the prophets are said to have gone down to Bethel, which is
3000 feet above the plain. It haa been identified with Jiljilia, about four miles from Bethel and
Shiloh respectively.
• The “king of the nations of Gilgal” or rather perhaps the “king of Goim at Gilgal,” is mentioned
in the catalogue of the chiefs overthrown bv Joshua. (Joshua 12:23) Possibly the site of this place
is marked by the modern village Jiljulieh, about four miles south of Antipatris, which lies 16 miles
northeast of Joppa. But another Gilgal, under the slightly-different form of Kilkilieh, lies about
two miles east of Antipatris.
Giloh
(exile), a town in the mountainous part of Judah, named in the first group with Debir and
Eshtemoh, (Joshua 16:51) it was the native place of the famous Ahithophel. (2 Samuel 15:12)
Gilonite, The
native of Giloh. (2 Samuel 15:12; 23:34)
Gimzo
(fertile in sycamores), a town which with its dependent villages was taken possession of by the
Philistines in the reign of Ahaz. (2 Chronicles 28:18) The name (Jimzu) still remains attached to a
large village between two and three miles southwest of Lydda, south of the road between Jerusalem
and Jaffa.
Gin
a trap for birds or beasts; it consisted of a net, (Isaiah 8:14) and a stick to act as a spring. (Amos 3:5)
Ginath
(protection), father of Tibni. (1 Kings 16:21,22)
Ginnetho
(gardner), one of the chief of the priests and Levites who returned to Judea with Zerubbabel.
(Nehemiah 12:4) He is doubtless the same person as
Ginnethon
(gardener), a priest who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:6) (B.C. 410.)
Girdle
an essential article of dress in the East, and worn by both men and women. The common girdle
was made of leather, (2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4) like that worn by the Bedouins of the present day.
A finer girdle was made of linen, (Jeremiah 13:1; Ezekiel 16:10) embroidered with silk, and
sometimes with gold and silver thread, (Daniel 10:5; Revelation 1:13; 15:6) and frequently studded
with gold and precious stones or pearls. The military girdle was worn about the waist; the sword
or dagger was suspended from it. (Judges 3:16; 2 Samuel 20:8; Psalms 45:3) Hence girding up the
loins denotes preparation for battle or for active exertion. Girdles were used as pockets, as they
still are among the Arabs, and as purses, one end of the girdle being folded back for the purpose.
(Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8)
Girgashites
(dwelling on a clayey soil), The, one of the nations who were in possession of Canaan east of
the Sea of Galilee before the entrance thither of the children of Israel. (Genesis 10:16; 15:21; 7:1)
Girgasite, The
(Genesis 10:16) or NEXT ENTRY …
Gispa
(caress), one of the overseers of the Nethinim, in “the Ophel,” after the return from captivity.
(Nehemiah 11:21)
Gittahhepher
(Joshua 19:13) [GATH-HEPHER] Gittaim
[Gittites] Gittites
(belonging to Gath), the 600 men who followed David from Gath, under Ittai the Gittite, (2
Samuel 15:18,19) and who probably acted as a kind of body-guard. Obed-edom “the Gittite” may
have been so named from the town of Gittaim in Benjamin, (2 Samuel 4:3; Nehemiah 11:33) or
from Gath-rimmon.
Gittith
a musical instrument, by some supposed to have been used by the people of Gath, and by others
to have been employed at the festivities of the vintage. Psal 8,81,84.
Gizonites, The
(inhabitant of Gizoh). “The sons of Hashem the Gizonite “are named amongst the warriors of
David’s guard. (1 Chronicles 11:34) Kennicott concludes that the name should be Gouni.
Glass
The Hebrew word occurs only in (Job 28:17) where in the Authorized Version it is rendered
“crystal.” In spite of the absence of specific allusion to glass in the sacred writings, the Hebrews
must have been aware of the invention from paintings representing the process of glass-blowing,
which have been discovered at Beni-hassan, and in tombs at other places, we know that the invention
vas known at least 3500 years ago. Fragments too of wine-vases as old as the exodus have been
discovered in Egypt. The art was also known to the ancient Assyrians. In the New Testament glass
is alluded to as an emblem of brightness. (Revelation 4:6; 15:2; 21:18)
Gleaning
The gleaning of fruit trees, as well as of corn-fields, was reserved for the poor. [Corner] Glede
the old name for the common kite (Milvus ater), occurs only in (14:13) among the unclean birds
of prey.
Gnat
a species of mosquito mentioned only in the proverbial expression used by our Saviour in
(Matthew 23:21)
Goad
(Judges 3:31; 1 Samuel 13:21) The Hebrew word in the latter passage probably means the point
of the plough-share . The former word does probably refer to the goad, the long handle of which
might be used as a formidable weapon. The instrument, as still used in countries of southern Europe
and western Asia, consists of a rod about eight feet long, brought to a sharp point and sometimes
cased with iron at the head.
Goat
There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus agagrus, at present bred
in Palestine and Syria, but whether they are identical with those which were reared by the ancient
Hebrews it is not possible to say. The most marked varieties are the Syrian goat(Capra mammorica,
Linn.) and the Angora goat (Capra angorensis, Linn.), with fine long hair. As to the “wild goats,”
(1 Samuel 24:2; Job 39:1; Psalms 104:18) it is not at all improbable that some species of ibex is
denoted.
Goat, Scape
[Atonement, The Day Of, Day OF] Goath
(lowing), a place apparently in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, and named, in connection with
the hill Gareb, only in (Jeremiah 31:39)
Gob
(cistern), a place mentioned only in (2 Samuel 21:18,19) as the scene of two encounters between
David’s warriors and the Philistines. In the parallel account in (1 Chronicles 20:4) the name is given
as Gezer.
Goblet
a circular vessel for wine or other liquid.
God
(good). Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures two chief names are used for the one true divine
Being—ELOHIM, commonly translated God in our version, and Jehovah, translated Lord . Elohim
is the plural of Eloah (in Arabic Allah); it is often used in the short form EL (a word signifying
strength, as in EL-SHADDAI, God Almighty, the name by which God was specially known to the
patriarchs. (Genesis 17:1; 28:3; Exodus 6:3) The etymology is uncertain, but it is generally agreed
that the primary idea is that of strength, power of effect, and that it properly describes God in that
character in which he is exhibited to all men in his works, as the creator, sustainer and supreme
governor of the world. The plural form of Elohim has given rise to much discussion. The fanciful
idea that it referred to the trinity of persons in the Godhead hardly finds now a supporter among
scholars. It is either what grammarians call the plural of majesty, or it denotes the fullness of divine
strength, the sum of the powers displayed by God. Jehovah denotes specifically the one true God,
whose people the Jews were, and who made them the guardians of his truth. The name is never
applied to a false god, nor to any other being except one, the ANGEL-JEHOVAH who is thereby
marked as one with God, and who appears again in the New Covenant as “God manifested in the
flesh.” Thus much is clear; but all else is beset with difficulties. At a time too early to be traced,
the Jews abstained from pronouncing the name, for fear of its irreverent use. The custom is said to
have been founded on a strained interpretation of (Leviticus 24:16) and the phrase there used, “THE
NAME” (Shema), is substituted by the rabbis for the unutterable word. In reading the Scriptures
they substituted for it the word ADONAI (Lord), from the translation of which by Kurios in the
LXX., followed by the Vulgate, which uses Dominus, we have the Lord of our version. The
substitution of the word Lord is most unhappy, for it in no way represents the meaning of the sacred
name. The key to the meaning of the name is unquestionably given in God’s revelation of himself
to Moses by the phrase “I AM THAT I AM,” (Exodus 3:14; 6:3) We must connect the name Jehovah
with the Hebrew substantive verb to be, with the inference that it expresses the essential, eternal,
unchangeable being of Jehovah. But more, it is not the expression only, or chiefly, of an absolute
truth: it is a practical revelation of God, in his essential, unchangeable relation to this chosen people,
the basis of his covenant.
Gog
(mountain).
• A Reubenite, (1 Chronicles 5:4) son of Shemaiah.
Golan
(circle), a city of Bashan, (4:43) allotted out of the half tribe of Manasseh to the Levites, (Joshua
21:27) and one of the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan. ch (Joshua 20:8) Its very site is now
unknown. It gave its name to the province of Gaulanitis. It lay east of Galilee and north of Gadaritis
[Gadara], and corresponds to the modern province of Jaulan .
Gold
Gold was known from the very earliest times. (Genesis 2:11) It was at first used chiefly for
ornaments, etc. (Genesis 24:22) Coined money was not known to the ancients till a comparatively
late period; and on the Egyptian tombs gold is represented as being weighed in rings for commercial
purposes. Comp. (Genesis 43:21) Gold was extremely abundant in ancient times, (1 Chronicles
22:14; 2 Chronicles 1:15; 9:9; Daniel 3:1; Nahum 2:9) but this did not depreciate its value, because
of the enormous quantities consumed by the wealthy in furniture, etc. (1 Kings 6:22) 10 passim ;
(Esther 1:6; Song of Solomon 3:9,10; Jeremiah 10:9) The chief countries mentioned as producing
gold are Arabia, Sheba and Ophir. (1 Kings 9:28; 10:1; Job 28:16)
Golgotha
(skull), the Hebrew name of the spot at which our Lord was crucified. (Matthew 27:33; Mark
15:22; John 19:17) By these three evangelists it is interpreted to mean the “place of a skull.” Two
explanations of the name are given: (1) that it was a spot where executions ordinarily took place,
and therefore abounded in skulls; or(2) it may come from the look or form of the spot itself, bald,
round and skull-like, and therefore a mound or hillock, in accordance with the common phrase—for
which there is no direct authority— “Mount Calvary.” Whichever of these is the correct explanation,
Golgotha seems to have been a known spot.
Goliath
(splendor), a famous giant of Gath, who “morning and evening for forty days” defied the armies
of Israel. (1 Samuel 17:1) … (B.C. 1063.) He was possibly descended from the old Rephaim [Giants],
of whom a scattered remnant took refuge with the Philistines after their dispersion by the Ammonites.
(2:20,21; 2 Samuel 21:22) His height was “six cubits and a span,” which taking the cubit at 21
inches, would make him 10 1/2 feet high. The scene of his combat with David, by whom he was
slain, was the “valley of the terebinth,” between Shochoh and Arekah, probably among the western
passes of Benjamin. In (2 Samuel 21:19) we find that another Goliath of Gath was slain by Elhanan,
also a Bethlehemite.
Gomer
(perfect).
• The eldest son of Japheth, (Genesis 10:2,3) the progenitor of the early Cimmerians, of the later
Cimbri and the other branches of the Celtic family, and of the modern Gael and Cymri.
• The wife of Hosea. (Hosea 1:3)
Gomorrah
(submersion), one of the five “cities of the plain” or “vale of Siddim” that under the irrespective
kings joined battle there with Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14:2-8) and his allies by whom they were
discomfited till Abraham came to the rescue. Four out of the five were afterwards destroyed by the
Lord with fire from heaven. (Genesis 19:23-29) One of them only, Zoar (or Bela; which was its
original name), was spared at the request of Lot, in order that he might take refuge there. The
geographical position of these cities is discussed under Sodom.
Gopher
(pitch) wood. Only once mentioned— (Genesis 6:14) Two principal conjectures have been
proposed—
• That the “trees of gopher” are any trees of the resinous kind, such as pine, fir, etc.
• That Gopher is cypress.
Goshen
• The name of a part of Egypt where the Israelites dwelt during the whole period of their sojourn
in that country. It was probably situated on the eastern border of the Nile, extending from the
Mediterranean to the Red Sea. It contained the treasure-cities of Rameses and Pittim. It was a
pasture land, especially suited to a shepherd people, and sufficient for the Israelites, who there
prospered, and were separate from the main body of the Egyptians.
• A district in southern Palestine conquered by Joshua. (Joshua 10:41) It lay between Gaza and
Gibeon.
• A town in the mountains of Judah, probably in a part of the country of Goshen.
Gospels
The name Gospel (from god and spell, Ang. Sax. good message or news, which is a translation
of the Greek euaggelion) is applied to the four inspired histories of the life and teaching of Christ
contained in the New Testament, of which separate accounts are given in their place. They were
all composed during the latter half of the first century: those of St. Matthew and St. Mark some
years before the destruction of Jerusalem; that of St. Luke probably about A.D. 64; and that of St.
John towards the close of the century. Before the end of the second century, there is abundant
evidence that the four Gospels, as one collection, were generally used and accepted. As a matter
of literary history, nothing can be better established than the genuineness of the Gospels. On
comparing these four books one with another, a peculiar difficulty claims attention, which has had
much to do with the controversy as to their genuineness. In the fourth Gospel the narrative coincided
with that of the other three in a few passages only. The received explanation is the only satisfactory
one namely, that John, writing last, at the close of the first century had seen the other Gospels, and
purposely abstained from writing anew what they had sufficiently recorded. In the other three
Gospels there is a great amount of agreement. If we suppose the history that they contain to be
divided into 89 sections, in 42 of these all the three narratives coincide, 12 more are given by
Matthew and Mark only, 5 by Mark and Luke only, and 14 by Matthew and Luke. To these must
be added 5 peculiar to Matthew, 2 to Mark and 9 to Luke, and the enumeration is complete. But
this applies only to general coincidence as to the facts narrated: the amount of verbal coincidence,
that is, the passages either verbally the same or coinciding in the use of many of the same words,
is much smaller. It has been ascertained by Stroud that “if the total contents of the several Gospels
be represented by 100, the following table is obtained: Matthew has 42 peculiarities and 58
coincidences. Mark has 7 peculiarities and 93 coincidences. Luke has 59 peculiarities and 41
coincidences. John has 92 peculiarities and 8 coincidences. Why four Gospels.—
• To bring four separate independent witnesses to the truth.
• It is to give the Lord’s life from every point of view, four living portraits of one person. There
were four Gospels because Jesus was to be commended to four races or classes of men, or to four
phases of human thought,—the Jewish, Roman, Greek and Christian. Had not these exhausted the
classes to be reached, there would doubtless have been more Gospels. In all ages, the Jewish,
Roman and Greek natures reappear among men, and, in fact, make up the world of natural men,
while the Christian nature and wants likewise remain essentially the same. The FIRST GOSPEL
was prepared by Matthew for the Jew. He gives us the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the Jews,
the Messianic royalty of Jesus. He places the life and character of Jesus, as lived on earth, alongside
the life and character of the Messiah, as sketched in the prophets, showing Christianity as the
fulfillment of Judaism. Mark wrote the SECOND GOSPEL. It was substantially the preaching of
Peter to the Romans. The Gospel for him must represent the character and career of Jesus from
the Roman point of view, as answering to the idea of divine power, work, law, conquest and
universal sway; must retain its old significance and ever-potent inspiration at the battle-call of the
almighty Conqueror. Luke wrote the THIRD GOSPEL in Greece for the Greek. It has its basis in
the gospel which Paul and Luke, by long preaching to the Greeks, had already thrown into the
form best suited to commend to their acceptance Jesus as the perfect divine man. It is the gospel
of the future, of progressive Christianity, of reason and culture seeking the perfection of manhood.
John, “the beloved disciple,” wrote the FOURTH GOSPEL for the Christian, to cherish and train
those who have entered the new kingdom of Christ, into the highest spiritual life.—Condensed
from, Prof. Gregory.
Gourd
• Kikayan only in (Jonah 4:6-10) The plant which is intended by this word, and which afforded
shade to the prophet Jonah before Nineveh, is the Ricinus commnunis, or castor-oil plant, which,
a native of Asia, is now naturalized in America, Africa and the south of Europe. This plant varies
considerably n size, being in India a tree, but in England seldom attaining a greater height than
three or four feet. The leaves are large and palmate, with serrated lobes, and would form un
excellent shelter for the sun-stroken prophet. The seeds contain the oil so well known under the
name of “castor oil,” which has for ages been in high repute as a medicine. It is now thought by
many that the plant meant is a vine of the cucumber family, a gemline gourd, which is much used
for shade in the East.
• The wild gourd of (2 Kings 4:39) which one of “the sons of the prophets” gathered ignorantly,
supposing them to be good for food, is a poisonous gourd, supposed to be the colocynth, which
bears a fruit of the color and size of an orange, with a hard, woody shell. As several varieties of
the same family, such as melons, pumpkins, etc., are favorite articles of refreshing food amongst
the Orientals, we can easily understand the cause of the mistake.
Governor
In the Authorized Version this one English word is the representative of no less than ten Hebrew
and four Greek words.
• The chief of a tribe or family.
• A ruler in his capacity of lawgiver and dispenser of justice.
• A ruler consider especially as having power over the property and persons of his subjects. (Genesis
24:2; Joshua 12:2; Psalms 100:20) The “governors of the people,” in (2 Chronicles 23:20) appear
to have been the king’s body-guard; cf. (2 Kings 11:19)
• A prominent personage, whatever his capacity. It is applied to a king as the military and civil chief
of his people, (2 Samuel 5:2; 6:21; 1 Chronicles 29:22) to the general of an army, (2 Chronicles
32:21) and to the head of a tribe. (2 Chronicles 19:11) It denotes an officer of high rank in the
palace, the lord high chamberlain. (2 Chronicles 28:7) It is applied in (1 Kings 10:15) to the petty
chieftains who were tributary to Solomon, (2 Chronicles 9:14) to the military commander of the
Syrians, (1 Kings 20:24) the Assyrians, (2 Kings 18:24; 23:8) the Chaldeans, (Jeremiah 51:23)
and the Medes. (Jeremiah 51:38) Under the Persian viceroys, during the Babylonian captivity, the
land of the Hebrews appears to have been portioned out among “governors” (pachoth) inferior in
rank to the satraps, (Ezra 8:30) like the other provinces which were under the dominion of the
Persian king. (Nehemiah 2:7,9) It is impossible to determine the precise limits of their authority
or the functions which they had to perform. It appears from (Ezra 6:8) that these governors were
intrusted with the collection of the king’s taxes; and from (Nehemiah 5:18; 12:26) that they were
supported by a contribution levied upon the people, which was technically termed “the bread of
the governor” comp. (Ezra 4:14) They were probably assisted in discharging their official duties
by A council. (Ezra 4:7; 6:6) The “governor” beyond the river had a judgment-seat beyond
Jerusalem, from which probably he administered justice when making a progress through his
province. (Nehemiah 3:7) At the time of Christ Judea was a Roman province, governed by a
procurator (governor) appointed by Rome.
Gozan
seems in the Authorized Version of (1 Chronicles 5:26) to be the name of a river, but in (2
Kings 17:6) and 2Kin 18:11 It is evidently applied not to a river but a country. Gozan was the tract
to which the Israelites were carried away captive by Pul, Tiglathpileser and Shalmaneser, or possibly
Sargon. It is probably identical with the Gauzanitis of Ptolemy, and I may be regarded as represented
by the Mygdonia of other writers. It was the tract watered by the Habor, the modern Khabour, the
great Mesopotamian affluent of the Euphrates.
Grape
[Vine] Grasshopper
[Locust] Grave
[Burial, Sepulchres] Greaves
a piece of defensive armor which reached from the foot to the knee and thus protected the shin
of the wearer. It was made of leather or brass.
Grecian
The term Grecian, or Hellenist, denotes a Jew by birth or religion who spoke Greek. It is used
chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes in contrast with the Hebrews speaking the vernacular Hebrew
or Aramaean.—Bible Dictionary of Tract Society .
Greece, Greeks, Grecians
The histories of Greece and Palestine are little connected with each other. In (Genesis 10:2-5)
Moses mentions the descendants of Javan as peopling the isles of the Gentiles; and when the
Hebrews came into contact with the Ionians of Asia Minor, and recognized them as the long-lost
islanders of the western migration, it was natural that they should mark the similarity of sound
between Javan and Iones. Accordingly the Old Testament word which is Grecia, in Authorized
Versions Greece, Greeks, etc., is in Javan (Daniel 8:21; Joel 3:6) the Hebrew, however, is sometimes
regained. (Isaiah 66:19; Ezekiel 27:13) The Greeks and Hebrews met for the first time in the
slave-market. The medium of communication seems to have been the Tyrian slave-merchants.
About B.C. 800 Joel speaks of the Tyrians as, selling the children of Judah tot he Grecians, (Joel
3:6) and in Ezek 27:13 The Greeks are mentioned as bartering their brazen vessels for slaves.
Prophetical notice of Greece occurs in (Daniel 8:21) etc., where the history of Alexander and his
successors is rapidly sketched. Zechariah, (Zechariah 9:13) foretells the triumphs of the Maccabees
against the Greco-Syrian empire, while Isaiah looks forward to the conversion of the Greeks,
amongst other Gentiles, through the instrumentality of Jewish missionaries. (Isaiah 66:19) The
name of the country, Greece occurs once in the New Testament, (Acts 20:2) as opposed to
Macedonia. [Gentiles] Greyhound
the translation in the text of the Authorized Version, (Proverbs 30:31) of the Hebrew word
zarzir mothnayin ; i.e. “one girt about the loins.” Various are the opinions as to what animal “comely
in going” is here intended Some think “a leopard,” others “an eagle,” or “a man girt with armor,”
or “a zebra,” or “a war-horse girt with trappings.” But perhaps the word means “a wrestler,” when
girt about the loins for a contest.
Grinding
[Mill] Grove
• A word used in the Authorized Version, with two exceptions, to translate the mysterious Hebrew
term Asherah, which is not a grove, but probably an idol or image of some kind. [Asherah] It is
also probable that there was a connection between this symbol or image, whatever it was, and the
sacred symbolic tree, the representation of which occurs so frequently on Assyrian sculptures.
• The two exceptions noticed above are (Genesis 21:33) and 1Sam 22:6 (margin). In the religions
of the ancient heathen world groves play a prominent part. In the old times altars only were erected
to the gods. It was thought wrong to shut up the gods within walls, and hence trees were the first
temples; and from the earliest times groves are mentioned in connection with religious worship.
(Genesis 12:6,7; 11:30) Authorized Version “plain.” the groves were generally found connected
with temples, and often had the right of affording an asylum.
Gudgodah
(10:7) [See Horhagidgad] Guest
[Hospitality] Guni
(painted).
• A son of Naphtali, (Genesis 46:24; 1 Chronicles 7:13) the founder of the family of the Gunites.
(Numbers 26:48)
• A descendant of Gad. (1 Chronicles 5:15)
Gunites, The
the descendants of Guni, son of Naphtali. (Numbers 26:48)
Gur
(abode), The going up to, an ascent or rising ground, at which Ahaziah received his death-blow
while flying from jehu after the slaughter of Joram. (2 Kings 9:27)
Gurbaal
(abode of Baal), a place or district in which dwelt Arabians, as recorded in (2 Chronicles 26:7)
It appears from the context to have been in the country lying between Palestine and the Arabian
peninsula; but this, although probable, cannot be proved.

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